As Andrea Rossi prepares the first Hot Cat for the market place, he evidently continues to tweak and improve the technology. In response to an inquiry from Bernie Koppenhofer on the Journal of Nuclear Physics, Rossi commented on the place of the Carnot Cycle in E-Cat and Hot Cat technology.
“Electricity directly from heat seems to be a much more ‘natural’ way to make electricity, compared to the Carnot Cycle. Your hot cat seems like the perfect heat machine. Are you making any progress in circumventing the Carnot Cycle to make the ‘PowerCat’?”
Rossi’s response was quite interesting:
“You are touching a very important point: during these very days, and also during the more recent tests, we are working on this issue. I think we will be able to produce directly e.m.f., but much work has to be done.”
The e.m.f., or Electromotive Force, is based on Faraday’s Law. According to Hyperphysics, e.m.f.:
“…represents energy per unit charge (voltage) which has been made available by the generating mechanism and is not a ‘force’. …It is useful to distinguish voltages which are generated from the voltage changes which occur in a circuit as a result of energy dissipation, e.g., in a resistor.”
In this application, the “generating mechanism” referred to in the definition is Rossi’s Hot Cat.
“Actually, we already produced direct e.m.f. with the reactors at high temperature, and we measured it with the very precise measurement instrumentation introduced by the third party expert, but we are not ready for an industrial production, while we are at a high level of industrialization for the production of heat and, at this point, also of high temperature steam, which is the gate to the Carnot Cycle.”
While the Carnot Cycle is still part of the calculations and performance of the current Hot Cats, it is apparent that Rossi is working, with some early success, to circumvent the Carnot Cycle entirely.